Information and Links for Students
Links last verified 2/9/04
Definitions and Taxonomies of Plagiarism
of Plagiarism (two) Affliation: Central
Virginia Governor's School for Science and Technology
This site gives detailed definintions of each type, which complete documentation of the printed source material from which these definitions are taken. In addition there are links to useful examples. The text colors are little hard to read, but this is a good basic classification with clear examples.
- "Failing to Format and Cite Quotations Correctly"
- "Failing to Put Summaries and Paraphrases In Your Own Words"
Handout (three types) Affliation: University
This site breaks plagiarism down into three types and gives extensive definitions and an example of each. There is also a correctly documented example and links to handouts on MLA and APA documentation styles.
- "Copying directly from another source without using quotation marks or a footnote"
- "Changing a few words in a passage from another source without using quotation marks or a footnote" or "Patchwork Plagiarism"
- "Putting ideas (judgments, opinions, inferences experiments,
etc.) from another source in your own words without using a footnote"
or "Plagiarism by Paraphrasing"
- A Three-Part Definition from a Defunct Website; Affliation: Wake
Forest Univesity School of Law (http://www.law.wfu.edu/lrwfrontpage/plariarism.htm)
[This information was downloaded on 23 June 2003]
- "Copying the exact words of someone else without proper attribution is the most obvious form of plagiarism."
- "Paraphrasing another's writing without giving proper credit is also plagiarism."
- "Even using another's ideas or reasoning without attribution
is plagiarism. When you borrow ideas or analysis directly from another
source, you must acknowledge the source. The lack of a citation
suggests that you are attempting to pass off the ideas or reasoning
as your own."
of Plagiarism (four) Affliation: Radford
This site links to some examples, which, however, don't exactly correlate to these four types. There is also a link to ways to avoid plagiarism from the example page. There is a link to a quiz on plagiarism, but as of 2/9/04, this link was not active.
- "The most blatant type of plagiarism is the act of turning in someone else’s entire work as your own. If you were to go to the web and download a paper, put your own name on it, and turn it in, you risk dismissal from the University. Using the same tools you might have used to find the paper or software designed specifically for this purpose, professors and librarians can track down the original work and charge you with an honor code violation."
- "Direct quotations, even if you change a few words, must be identified with indention or quotation marks and be properly cited. When you copy words, phrases, sentences, or paragraphs from a source you must acknowledge the author with a proper citation."
- "Paraphrases, restatements or summaries of the sense of another author’s ideas in your own words, must also be properly cited. You may begin the paraphrase with signal phrases such as `according to Smith' or `a recent study has shown' and end with a citation to the original work."
- "Images, video and sound clips, or software programs that
you download from the Internet must be properly cited. Even
though you can easily download them it is still plagiarism to claim
them as your own intellectual property by not properly citing the
of Plagiarism (four) Affliation: University
This page offers a handy chart, available in an easily printed version from a link at the bottom of the page. The chart also includes source material and is linked to resources for instructors on how to catch students who cheat. (See this page for the University of Michigan's Resources for Students.)
- ("Intentional") "Fraud"
- ("Unintentional") "Patchwriting"
- ("Unintentional," "Non-Attribution") "Failure to Cite"
- ("Unintentional," "Non-Attribution") "Failure
Plagiarism in an Online Graduate Environment (five types) Author:
C. B. Crawford; Affliation: Fort Hays
This page discusses each of the five types for a paragraph or more. There are also links at the side and bottom of the page to other plagiarism-related sites, including the Fort Hays University Student Resources Page.
- "Inappropriate citation and reference"
- "Inappropriate quotation"
- "Contextual fraud"
A Student's Guide to Recognizing It and Avoiding It (five types)
Barnbaum; Affliation: Valdosta
This website gives detailed definitions and examples of each of the five types listed below. There is also an example of a sample assignment involving responding to a short article. There is a sample that does not plagiarize the source article, along with the source article, so you can see how a good paper cites and paraphrases a text.
- "Copy & Paste"
- "Word Switch"
Resources (five types) Affliation: San
Francisco State University
This website is largely directed to faculty, but the definitions are useful. Students may also find the "Additional Resources in Print or Online" helpful.
- "Fraud: outright purchase or copying of an entire paper, perhaps with a new introduction or conclusion added. In some cases, such copying may entail copyright infringement."*
- "Substantial plagiarism: widespread or considerable borrowing of material, passing off borrowed passages as original, failure to indicate quoted evidence or give bibliographical sources or other appropriate credit." *
- "Incidental plagiarism: small-scale borrowing, copying, downloading, or insertion without appropriate quotation, credit, or acknowledgment." *
- "Too much help: misusing the assistance of a tutor or other more skilled reader. Employing or allowing someone else to alter substantially or write an assignment."
- "Inadvertent plagiarism: plagiarizing out of ignorance. The
student may not realize what he or she is doing is wrong, or may
not know how to cite sources correctly."
[*These three types are paraphrases of the three-part definition of this source: http://www.andromeda.rutgers.edu/~ehrlich/plagiarism598.html]
Assorted Other Links
Indiana University at Bloomington (definition and tips)
California University of Pennsylvania, annotated link list on plagiarism
Advice on Plagiarism with links to articles on it (for teachers)
Definition and laws relevent to plagiarism, Ronald B.Standler
Links to many plagiarism articles, by Rebecca Moore Howard
1996 article on Plagiarism from the Web, by Tom Rocklin
Bibliography with some links to articles on school cheating, by the Center for Academic Integrity
plagiarism links by Hagerstown Community College
1. "Handing in a paper that you've purchased from a private company."
2. "Handing in a paper that was written by another student."
3. "Handing in the same (or a very similar) paper as your friend."
4. "Copying a portion of your paper from another source without proper documentation."
5. "Using facts and/or ideas obtained from another source without proper documentation."
6. "Handing in a paper for more than one class."
1. "The most obvious is plagiarism in which a writer simply copies from a text not his or her own. The work of another is presented, word-for-word or nearly so, under the name of one who has not written but only copied."
2."The other, more common type of plagiarism is often referred to
as `mosaic plagiarism,' or paraphrasing. It can be committed by the astutely
dishonest thief, in a deliberate attempt to deceive; or by the well-meaning,
but uninformed or careless writer, who takes research notes poorly or
misunderstands the forms required for accurate crediting. In mosaic plagiarism,
words are not copied directly, but are changed or rearranged; original
sentences or even whole paragraphs are often
interspersed with the plagiarized material."
3."The issue of plagiarism is certainly not limited to text, whether print or electronic. Equally subject are non-print media, such as television, radio and the visual and performing arts."
4. "The first [area of confusion], essentially formal, centers on
the use of paraphrasing of, or direct quotation from a source. Both are
common and accepted ways to cite research, but confusion often arises
as to whether they require formal crediting. In the case of paraphrasing,
it must be remembered that while the words
may indeed be one's own, the ideas they express are not; and those ideas must be formally credited to their source. When one uses direct quotations, it is not enough to set them apart, visually, with quotation marks; both quotations and paraphrased passages must be footnoted."
5. "A second area of confusion surrounds the use of `public' or
`encyclopedic' information. This is information that is generally assumed
to be shared by everyone, and it need not be credited. (If one refers,
for instance, to the fact that on the standard decimal system two plus
two equals four, there is no need to cite an arithmetic book as a source.)
What information may be safely assumed to be
` public,' however, is often uncertain. A good rule of thumb here is to credit anything that was new when one encountered it in the course of research . . . it being better to appear naive than dishonest."
6."The third common area of uncertainty is more or less specific to the creative arts and may be referred to as `artistic quoting.' Often, creative material produced by others (a photograph or a piece of dialogue for instance) may be used in one's own work for the purpose of commenting on its original style, attitude, technique, etc. The key to questions of crediting here is, again, familiarity."
1. "Explicit Plagiarism: 'Complete plagiarism exists when an entire essay is copied from an author, or composed by another person, and presented as original work Complete plagiarism is bold and blatant.' (University of British Columbia, http://www.arts.ubc.ca/doa/plagiarism.htm)"
2. "Taking phrases, sentences, paragraphs, or statistical findings from a variety of sources and piecing them together into an essay (piecemeal plagiarism)"
3. "Taking another author's idea, without your own critical analysis, and failing to acknowledge that this idea is not yours"
4. "Paraphrasing (i.e. rewording or rearranging words so that your work resembles, but does not copy, the original) without acknowledging your source"
5. "Using footnotes or material quoted in other sources as if they were the results of your own research"
6. "Submitting a piece of work with inaccurate text references, sloppy footnotes, or incomplete source (bibliographic) information"
3. "Omitting quotation marks"
5. "Plagiarism of organization and information"
6. "Quoting out of context"
7. "Paraphrasing without acknowledgment"
[#1-5 are quoted from the Fall 1994 College Teaching]
1. "`Buying a paper from a research service or term paper mill.'"
2. "`Turning in another student's work without that student's knowledge.'"
3. "`Turning in a paper from a source text without proper acknowledgement.'"
4. "`Copying materials from a source text, supplying proper documentation, but leaving out quotation marks.'"
5."` Paraphrasing materials from a source text without appropriate documentation.'"
6. "Using the exact words, phrases, or sentences of another person without proper documentation."
7."Paraphrasing information used by another person (facts, opinions, ideas, or language) without proper documentation."
1. "`The Ghost Writer' By many academic standards, it is even possible to plagiarize from yourself, if you paraphrase or copy from work you published elsewhere without citation. The writer turns in another's work, word-for-word, as his or her own."
2. "`The Photocopy' The writer copies significant portions of text straight from a single source, without alteration."
3. "`The Potluck Paper' The writer tries to disguise plagiarism by copying from several different sources, tweaking the sentences to make them fit together while retaining most of the original phrasing."
4. "`The Poor Disguise' Although the writer has retained the essential content of the source, he or she has altered the paper's appearance slightly by changing key words and phrases."
5. "`The Labor of Laziness' The writer takes the time to paraphrase most of the paper from other sources and make it all fit together, instead of spending the same effort on original work."
6."`The Self-Stealer' The writer `borrows' generously from his or her previous work, violating policies concerning the expectation of originality adopted by most academic institutions."
7."`The Forgotten Footnote' The writer mentions an author's name for a source, but neglects to include specific information on the location of the material referenced. This often masks other forms of plagiarism by obscuring source locations."
8. "`The Misinformer' The writer provides inaccurate information
regarding the sources, making it impossible to find them."
9. "`The Too-Perfect Paraphrase' The writer properly cites a source, but neglects to put in quotation marks text that has been copied word-for-word, or close to it. Although attributing the basic ideas to the source, the writer is falsely claiming original presentation and interpretation of the information."
10. "`The Resourceful Citer' The writer properly cites all sources, paraphrasing and using quotations appropriately. The catch? The paper contains almost no original work! It is sometimes difficult to spot this form of plagiarism because it looks like any other well-researched document."
11. "`The Perfect Crime' Well, we all know it doesn't exist. In this case, the writer properly quotes and cites sources in some places, but goes on to paraphrase other arguments from those sources without citation. This way, the writer tries to pass off the paraphrased material as his or her own analysis of the cited material."